"A cup of coffee" used to mean just that: a cup (or, admittedly, sometimes a mug) filled with freshly brewed drip or percolated coffee (see How to Brew Coffee), accompanied by sugar and milk or cream for you to add to taste.
Today, we live in the age of coffee drinks customized to the individual tastes of the drinker, most of them imported or adapted from popular European ways to enjoy coffee. Following is a roster of classic different coffee drinks. Bear in mind that each of them can be further customized by adding to their names such terms as "percent" (meaning made with 1 percent or 2 percent low-fat milk), "nonfat" (made with nonfat milk), "soy" (made with soymilk), "extra foam" (topped with more than the usual amount of foam from milk steamed with an espresso machine), and other terms whose meaning soon becomes clear once you understand the context.
(French: ca-FAY oh LAY). French-style strong brewed coffee served in a large cup or bowl with an equal amount or more of steamed milk.
(Italian: CAH-fay ah-MARE-ee-CAH-noh). A single or double shot of espresso diluted to the strength of American-style brewed coffee by the addition of hot water.
(Italian: CAH-fay LAH-tay). Sometimes just referred to nowadays by the shorthand "latte," this "milk coffee" combines a double espresso with up to twice as much steamed milk, topped with a thin layer of foam.
(Italian: cap-oo-CHEE-noh). A double espresso to which almost twice as much steamed milk is added, plus a generous layer of milk foam. The name cappuccino coffee came about because these coffee drinks were fancifully thought to resemble old Capuchin monks with brown robes and frothy white hair.
(Italian: cap-oo-CHEE-noh BREY-veh). A "brief cappuccino" in which half of the steamed milk is replaced by foam.
(Italian: es-PRESS-oh cone PAH-nah). Literally "espresso with cream," a single or double shot of espresso coffee with rich cold cream or half-and-half added to taste.
(Italian: es-PRESS-oh DOH-pee-oh). A "double espresso," made with twice the quantities of a single espresso.
(Italian: es-PRESS-oh mah-kee-AH-toh). "A marked espresso," made by adding a spoonful of foam from steamed milk to a single espresso or double espresso.
(Italian: es-PRESS-oh ree-STREH-toh). A "restricted espresso," alternatively called "espresso stretto" in Italian, also known as a "short espresso." This is a more concentrated, stronger tasting shot made by using the same amount of espresso grind coffee but a little less water than for a single shot of espresso.
(Italian: es-PRESS-oh SO-lo). Literally, a "single espresso." One shot of espresso coffee made with 1 1/2 tablespoons of espresso grind coffee and about 1 ounce of hot water.
(Italian: LAH-tay mah-kee-AH-toh). Literally "marked milk," this cup of milk steamed in the espresso machine is finished off with a small splash of espresso.
(English: MOH-kah). Refers to any coffee drink, such as "mocha latte" or "mochaccino" (a contraction of "Mocha cappuccino") to which chocolate flavoring is added in the form of cocoa powder, chocolate syrup, melted chocolate, or even a flavored coffee coating on the beans.